Since the most irrefutable test of paternity is by DNA Paternity Testing, how can this be done when the suspected father is absent?
There is no more conclusive way of determine paternity than DNA testing. Comparing DNA samples for the child and the suspected father will indicate, in the eyes of the law, paternity or not.The genetic markers used by laboratories can indicate biological paternity within 99.99% accuracy, which is why this is the only proof needed, should it be established.
In order to do this, a DNA sample would normally be required from both the parent and the child, but there are cases where th is may not be possible.For example, the biological father might be deceased, untraceable or has even refused to provide a sample. In such cases, there are alternative means available of acquiring a DNA sample and completing the test.
DNA Testing on Blood Relatives
DNA testing has advanced over the years until it is now possible to carry out a paternity test using samples from family members that have genes common to those of the alleged father.Such DNA Relationship Testing can now legally be used to determine paternity, and is carried out on the paternal grandparents of the child in question, and other close family members such as cousins and aunts and uncles.
Not all paternity testing involves young children, and nieces and nephews will also share genes common with the father and his child.Siblings of the child can also be used as subjects for the DNA test, the results of these tests being used to determine whether or not they share a common father and/or mother.
There is one type of testing that has been used in forensics, and has now been extended to DNA Relationship testing known as Y-STR (Y-Short Tandem Repeats) base on the male Y chromosome. Males have an X and a Y chromosome, and females two X chromosomes, and sex is determined by whether the female X chromosome divides and attaches to the male Y or X chromosome: A X-Y combination develops into a male child.
This Y chromosome is passed virtually unchanged down the male line, and can be used to prove paternity by comparing the Y chromosome of the child with that of grandfathers, uncles, brothers and any other male relative. Once the male lineage is broken, the Y chromosome will change.Unrelated males have different Y chromosomes, so a father unrelated to the rest of the family will possess a different Y chromosome. This test can prove parentage only of male children.
If you are having DNA paternity testing to establish father child relationship, you should inform the lab carrying out your testing if you are having this difficulty. They can then arrange for testing with other male family members.Explain to them what relatives are available to be tested, and they will let you know what the best solution is. If the test has to have legal credibility, then the subjects tested and the samples will have to be formally notarized and a courier be provided to transport the samples to the accredited laboratory.
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